Traumatic Brain Injuries

TBI imageTraumatic brain injury (TBI) usually results from a violent blow or jolt to the head or body; or an object, such as a bullet or skull fragment, penetrating brain tissue. Common causes of TBI include falls, motor vehicle accidents, assaults, sports injuries and explosions or combat injuries.

  • Those most at risk of sustaining a TBI include children age four and under, those between ages 15 and 24, adults age 60 and older, and males of any age.
  • TBI may have wide-ranging physical and psychological effects. Some signs or symptoms may appear immediately after the traumatic event, while others may appear days or weeks later.
  • The severity of a TBI may range from “mild” (e.g. a brief change in mental status or consciousness) to “severe” (e.g. an extended period of unconsciousness or memory loss after the injury).  CodeA concussion is a mild TBI.

Symptoms of a mild TBI may include:

  • Physical symptoms: short-term loss of consciousness, confusion or disorientation, headache, nausea and/or vomiting, fatigue or drowsiness, dizziness or loss of balance, problems with speech or change in sleep patterns.
  • Sensory symptoms: blurred vision, ringing in the ears, a bad taste in the mouth or changes in the ability to smell, sensitivity to light or sound.
  • Cognitive or mental symptoms: memory or concentration problems, mood changes, feeling depressed and/or anxious.

Even following a mild TBI, it is important to continue to monitor for delayed onset of additional symptoms, which may include:

  • Physical symptoms: loss of consciousness lasting from minutes to hours, persistent or worsening headache, repeated nausea and/or vomiting, convulsions/seizures, dilation of one or both pupils of the eyes, clear fluids draining from the nose or ears, inability to awaken from sleep, weakness or numbness in fingers and toes, and/or loss of coordination.
  • Cognitive or mental symptoms: profound confusion, agitation, combativeness or other unusual behavior, slurred speech and coma or other disorders of consciousness. Learn more at the websites below: